Targeting selenoprotein H in the nucleolus suppresses tumors and metastases by ...

Updated: Apr 29

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Jing Cui , Jingcheng Zhou , Weiqing He , Juan Ye , Timothy Westlake , Rogelio Medina , Herui Wang , Bhushan L. Thakur , Juanjuan Liu , Mingyu Xia , Zhonggui He , Fred E. Indig , Aiguo Li , Yan Li , Robert J. Weil , Mirit I. Aladjem , Laiping Zhong , Mark R. Gilbert and Zhengping Zhuang

Targeting selenoprotein H in the nucleolus suppresses tumors
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Abstract Background: Compared to normal cells, cancer cells exhibit a higher level of oxidative stress, which primes key cellular and metabolic pathways and thereby increases their resilience under oxidative stress. This higher level of oxidative stress also can be exploited to kill tumor cells while leaving normal cells intact. In this study we have found that isovalerylspiramycin I (ISP I), a novel macrolide antibiotic, suppresses cancer cell growth and tumor metastases by targeting the nucleolar protein selenoprotein H (SELH), which plays critical roles in keeping redox homeostasis and genome stability in cancer cells. Methods: We developed ISP I through genetic recombination and tested the antitumor effects using primary and metastatic cancer models. The drug target was identified using the drug affinity responsive target stability (DARTS) and mass spectrum assays. The effects of ISP I were assessed for reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, DNA dam- age, R-loop formation and its impact on the JNK2/TIF-IA/RNA polymerase I (POLI) transcription pathway. Results: ISP I suppresses cancer cell growth and tumor metastases by targeting SELH. Suppression of SELH induces accumulation of ROS and cancer cell-specific genomic instability. The accumulation of ROS in the nucleolus triggers nucleolar stress and blocks ribosomal RNA transcription via the JNK2/TIF-IA/POLI pathway, causing cell cycle arrest and apoptosis in cancer cells. Conclusions: We demonstrated that ISP I links cancer cell vulnerability to oxidative stress and RNA biogenesis by targeting SELH. This suggests a potential new cancer treatment paradigm, in which the primary therapeutic agent has minimal side-effects and hence may be useful for long-term cancer chemoprevention. Keywords: Carrimycin, Isovalerylspiramycin I, Malignant tumors, Metastasis, Selenoprotein H, Reactive oxygen species, Nucleolar stress, Ribosomal RNA biogenesis

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